There are 2339 species of birds in Africa. Of them, 1561 (67%) are endemic. Africa is the second largest continent in the world, both by land area and population. According to the United Nations, there are 54 countries in Africa. Africa is the world’s second largest and second most-populous continent, behind Asia. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth’s total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world’s human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos.